news, views & info
… to this twenty-fourth edition of “The Old Roman” a weekly dissemination of news, views and information for and from around the world reflecting the experience and life of 21C “Old Romans” i.e. western Orthodox Catholics across the globe.
CONTRIBUTIONS… news items, magazine, devotional or theological articles, prayer requests, features about apostolates and parish mission life are ALL welcome and may be submitted via email. Submissions should be sent by Friday for publication the following Sunday.
ORDO w/c Sunday 16th February 2020 Vol I issue xxiv
(V) Missa “Exsurge”
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(V) Missa “Exsurge”
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|T||18.02||St Simeon of Jerusalem B&M|
(R) Missa “In virtute”
(V) Missa “Exsurge”
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(V) Missa “Exsurge”
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(V) Missa “Exsurge”
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|S||22.02||Chair of St Peter at Antioch|
(W) Missa “Statuit ei Dominus”
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St Peter Damian B&Dr
(V) Missa “Esto mihi”
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3a) of Saints
KEY: A=Abbot A cunctis=of the Saints B=Bishop BD=Benedicamus Domino BVM=Blessed Virgin Mary C=Confessor Com=Commemoration Cr=Creed D=Doctor d=double d.i/ii=double of the 1st/2nd Class E=Evangelist F=Feria Gl=Gloria gr.d=greater-double (G)=Green H=Holy K=King M=Martyr mpal=missae pro aliquibus locis Mm=Martyrs Pent=Pentecost P=Priest PP/PostPent=Post Pentecost PLG=Proper Last Gospel Pref=Preface ProEccl=for the Church (R)=Red s=simple s-d=semi-double Co=Companions V1=1st Vespers V=Virgin v=votive (V)=violet W=Widow (W)=white *Ob.=Obligation 2a=second oration 3a=third oration
From Septuagesima in the Traditional Roman Rite liturgy, the Alleluia ceases to be said during the liturgy. At first Vespers of Septuagesima Sunday, two alleluias are added to the closing verse of Benedicamus Domino and its response, Deo gratias, as during the Easter Octave, and starting at Compline, it is no longer used until Easter.
Likewise, violet vestments are worn, except on feasts, from Septuagesima Sunday until Holy Thursday. As during Advent and Lent, the Gloria and Te Deum are no longer said on Sundays.
Sexagesima (Latin sixtieth) is the eighth Sunday before Easter and the second before Lent. The Church reminds us of the name of this Sunday, Sexagesima, for among the names which she uses, she lingers over this one: “Some seed fell upon good ground, and brought forth fruit, some a hundred-fold, some sixty-fold, sexagesimum.”
St. Matthew (XIII, 18) and St. Mark (IV, 13) tell us that, so to speak, three of the resulting crops failed in different ways according as the good seed fell on ground which was rocky (hearts hardened by pride), barren (dried up by self-interest), or full of thorns (where sins of sensuality flourish); while three produced excellent results, the word of God in the good ground bringing forth fruit thirty, sixty and a hundred-fold.
Here is a plan for us to follow. In our spiritual life, let us at least produce sixty-fold, that is, receiving the word of God in a good and perfect heart, let us cause it to bear fruit by our patience so that He, who spent His life scattering His holy teaching among souls, sparso verbi semine (Pange Lingua) and who carries on the same work by his apostles and His Church, may bestow upon us the reward promised to those who persevere in the generous practice of their faith.
It was through the Word that God made the world in the beginning (last Gospel), and it is by the preaching of His Gospel that our Lord came to bring men to a new birth. “Being born again,” says St. Peter, “not of corruptible seed, but incorruptible, by the word of God who liveth and reigneth forever” (I Peter I, 23).
Chair of St Peter at Antioch
That Saint Peter, before he went to Rome, founded the see of Antioch is attested by many Saints of the earliest times, including St. Ignatius of Antioch and Pope St. Clement I. It was just that the Prince of the Apostles should take under his particular care and surveillance this city, which was then the capital of the East, and where the faith so early took such deep roots as to give birth there to the name of Christians. There his voice could be heard by representatives of the three largest nations of antiquity — the Hebrews, the Greeks and the Latins. St. John Chrysostom says that St. Peter was there for a long period; Pope St. Gregory the Great claims that though he was seven years Bishop of Antioch, he did not reside there at all times, but governed its apostolic activity with the wisdom his mandate assured.
If as tradition affirms, he was twenty-five years in Rome, the date of his establishment at Antioch must be within three years after Our Lord’s Ascension, for he would have gone to Rome in the second year of Claudius. He no doubt left Jerusalem when the persecution which followed St. Steven’s martyrdom broke out (Acts 8:1), and remained in Antioch until he escaped miraculously from prison and from the hands of Herod Agrippa, while in Jerusalem in 43 at the time of the Passover. (Acts 12) Knowing he would be pursued to Antioch, his well-known centre of activity, he went to Rome.
In the first ages it was customary, especially in the East, for every Christian to observe the anniversary of his Baptism. On that day each one renewed his baptismal vows and gave thanks to God for his Heavenly adoption. That memorable day they regarded as their spiritual birthday. The bishops similarly kept the anniversary of their consecration, as appears from four sermons of Pope St. Leo the Great on the anniversary of his accession to the pontifical dignity. These commemorations were frequently continued by the people after their bishops’ decease, out of respect for their memory. The feast of the Chair of Saint Peter was instituted from very early times. St. Leo says we should celebrate the Chair of St. Peter with no less joy than the day of his martyrdom, for as in the latter he was exalted to a throne of glory in Heaven, by the former he was installed Head of the Church on earth.
As this feast most often falls in Lent, certain churches celebrated this feast at an earlier date, in January. Hence the two feasts of the Chair of St. Peter, which the Church distinguished by connecting the more ancient one on February 22, with the Chair at Antioch and that on January 18 with the Chair of Rome. St. Peter resided indeed for some time at Antioch about the years 51-52.
It is to St. Peter, who proclaimed that Jesus was “the Christ, Son of the living God” (Gospel) when all Palestine rejected Him, that the Master commits the power to bind Satan by closing the gates of hell to open for us the gates of Heaven (Gospel). And the Head of the Church teaches us in his first Epistle that it is “by faith in the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ that the Holy Ghost sanctifies us and reconciles us to the Father.”
The commemoration of Saint Paul immediately follows the Collect, Secret and Postcommunion of the feast, for the liturgy does not separate those who have so justly been called the two pillars of the Church.
The Old Roman View
For Old Romans, Tradition is not just about the past but also about the present and the future too! During the Primus’s visit to the Philippines, it was the young as much as the old who wanted to make known their appreciation for our Communion and the Church as a source of life, joy and hope. From the very young attending daily Mass, altar servers, celebrating the Primus’s birthday, an impromptu parish beach outing or dancing after Mass, the children and young people of our parishes in the Philippines beamed with enthusiasm for the faith and for the life of the Church as an extended family!
After one of the Primus’s daily Masses, a parishioner offered an apology for the noise of some of the youngest attending in church, the Primus replied, “It’s quite alright, without the young there is no future!” So often people assume that the Traditional Mass having such a rarefied air of solemnity about it, children should be “seen and not heard” but the contrary must be true! In medieval times the naves of the parish churches of Europe were often host to bustling indoor markets during inclement weather, even while Mass was being offered at the high altar! Its quite common even now for sounds of the outside world to be heard in inner city churches while Mass is being offered.
Ours is an “incarnational” faith, i.e. rather than the spiritual being divorced from the material, Christianity and most particularly in Catholic worship and culture, is all about the two being reconciled in harmony and unity of purpose; that’s what the redemption of creation is all about! That’s why salt and water are exorcised before being blessed and set apart for God’s service, why people likewise are exorcised in baptism before similarly being set apart through the regenerative waters as citizens of heaven; creation is purged then blessed and then employed in God’s service.
Noisy children, screaming babies, passing sirens, revving and backfiring car engines, all these are as relevant to the background of our worship as those sounds being deliberately employed to enhance and focus our worship like bells, the clanging of thurible chains and the heavenly strains of choirs! Particularly during the Mass when the restorative work of redemption is being effected through Christ’s passion and self-immolation on the Cross re-presented for us upon the altar, where the mystery of the incarnation at Bethlehem is presented before us as the Word is once more made flesh.
We forget perhaps that the salvific acts in the history of our salvation did not take place apart from the hustle and bustle of life… from the lowing animals near the manger through to the jeering crowds on Good Friday, God’s work of redemption in and through Christ took place in and amidst the noise and messiness of creation and human experience. Christ lived as one of us, literally, “God made man” and so the reality and experience of our faith should not be divorced from the world around us, but realised through it.
Yes, silence and reverence are absolutely desirable and eminently conducive for worship, but in order for our faith to be a lived experience, we should not be perturbed by the occasional interruption of a child’s cry or the world around us. Church in both worship and fellowship should be experienced in the reality of the present moment as well as convey a sense of and connect us with other-worldliness. As the song says,
“I believe the children are our future,
Teach them well and let them lead the way”
For as much as we might prefer and desire children to be quiet during solemn worship, at the same time we need to teach them how and why as well as make some allowance for them… patience is after-all a virtue!
Reflection on celibacy
A Reflection on Celibacy by Most Rev. Romeo R. Rabusa, MSSN, D.D. of the Missionary Society of Santo Niño (MSSN), an Old Roman Catholic congregation of both celibate and married priests, seminarians and their families and church communities who dedicate their lives to missionary activities and pastoral ministries.
The discussion on celibacy as a requirement for priesthood in the Roman Catholic Church is once again front and center of debates in various media platforms for many great reasons. But it is amplified by the Benedict XVI-Cardinal Sarah Book Fiasco. I don’t know if the controversy was intentionally designed to strategically create a great audience for this book, which is now a common approach to have a great publicity of an upcoming book. But, without a doubt, it is intended to influence the decision of Pope Francis I as he is about to respond to the recommendation by the Pan-Amazon Synod of Bishops to allow the ordination of married men as Catholic priests in the region.
Like you, I am reading a lot and listening to the good and bad noises about it. But I am practically quiet for the following reasons:My Priesthood is a Gift from God Gifts are freely given and freely received! In the gospel of John, we are very familiar with this Johannine text in our preparations to the priesthood in the seminary, “You did not choose me, but I chose you.” (John 15:16)
My priesthood is a gift from God, and He is the one who willed it for me. It is conferred through the Sacrament of Holy Orders, and as we were taught about sacraments, they provide graces that we don’t deserve. But, in God’s great mercy and compassion –humbling Himself even to the point of death on the cross –sacramental graces are ways to holiness and ultimately salvation. However, two theological facts are crystal clear: It’s God who willed it and I always never deserve it. But He willed it though I am a sinner because He loves me, and I am worth dying for. Make no mistake on this theological fact on Sacraments: No human power could attach an inward grace to an outward sign—not even the divinely guided but humanly applied power of the Church.
I understand and respect that authorities in our Mother Church have an important role to play, particularly their teaching and preservation of Tradition in the life of the Church, but I came to realise long time ago in my priesthood that God is the giver of this gift of ministerial service. While church authorities act like God, instead of being servants of God and the people that God has entrusted to their care, God always prevails.
As I personally shared with you in the past, I did not want to come back when I left my active sacerdotal ministry. I have been humanly satisfied with what God has blessed me –a home and family, stable employment, countless of friends, etc. But God found a way to get me back and actively use the gift He has given me. I tried to run away from priesthood not only once, but twice. But God is way stronger to resist. I am humbled by His calling, and how God continually blesses the ministries He entrusted to my care. Honestly, it’s God’s ministry story, and He humbly made me a part of it.
Celibacy is a human discipline
Right after my ordination, I was blessed by God to have a bishop who saw my talents and skills and used them effectively in the diocese. I was the youngest priest and a member of eight Diocesan Commissions and Functions like Theological Commission, Tribunal Judge, Personnel Board, and others. The Personnel Board was the most interesting body where I learned a lot from cradled Roman Catholic clergy and laity with their tremendous acumen and understanding of clergy personnel psychology, sociology, theology and all the so-called ‘-logies.’ They were highly educated and smart individuals running the Board.
As a young priest, however, I was so impressed with their openness and positive attitude towards married clergy. In fact, I heard from them that money has always been an obstacle to embracing married clergy since the Roman Catholic church has not been good with practising the Biblical law of tithing. “But we have a model already in the Episcopal Church,” one member said.
Celibacy is historically a human discipline implemented as a reaction to unfortunate situations that happened in the life of the church. Nowhere in the new Testament explicitly requires priests to be celibate. In fact, as we all know, for the first thousand years of Christianity it was not uncommon for priests to have families. The first pope, St Peter, was a married man; many early popes had children. How did it change?
It’s out of fear by church leaders when they saw and experienced human weaknesses among married clergy that time. It’s a human fear when Scriptures declares ‘Fear Not’ many times because God is in control. Amazingly, when the message of ‘Fear Not’ is followed, great things come to light in the world. But when fear abounds, we experience alienation, inequality, unfair treatment, elitism, etc. We see walls being built when we are afraid. Fear results in handcuffing people with strict and rigorous restrictions.
Did that fear really avoid or stop growing sexual abuses and scandals in the Church? In light with recent allegations and legal judgement and convictions of rampant abuses among clergy in many parts of the world, and even led to bankruptcy of dioceses, as well as bishop resignations and removals, I don’t even need to answer the question. See and read the facts for yourself.
Respectfully, the Church has a pretty good rationale to make celibacy part of the Catholic tradition. Based on Canon Law, celibacy makes all practitioners to follow more closely the example of Christ, who was chaste. Another reason is that when a priest enters into service to God, the church becomes his highest calling. If he were to have a family, there would be the potential for conflict between his spiritual and familial duties. The Vatican regards it as being easier for unattached men to commit to the church, as they have more time for devotion and fewer distractions.
Unfortunately, this rationale is not necessarily true based on my pastoral experience. I know of countless married clergy who are more available and way busier than celibate clergy. I am happy to invite anyone to talk to a couple of hospitals in Arizona that have real and genuine experiences of both married and celibate clergy they phoned in to respond to hospital calls. And they are free to survey the people who are marginalised and left behind because they were not served by celibate clergy when they called for their services.
Out-of-Touch Debates on Celibacy
The sad reality of our celibacy debates and conversations is the fact that it is about conservative and progressive ideologies and standings. It is simply like a political rhetoric that we see in TV and read in political newspapers and magazines. It’s the battle between the conservative and progressive in the Church.
The Benedict XVI-Cardinal Sarah Book Fiasco is a perfect example when Pope Francis I is trying to pray and discern of his response to the Pan-Amazon recommendation to allow married clergy in the region. It’s the process of listening and discerning the life situation of God’s people versus sabotaging the moment of discernment. Pope Francis I is trying to do the right thing, but Cardinal Robert Sarah and his like-minded followers sabotaged the efforts of the reigning pope.
The politicking in civil governments has entered in the sacred duties and functions of the church. It’s the same political manoeuvring and tactics that have divided and alienated so many people to the point that they don’t even exercise their fundamental right to vote. It is the last thing for me to see it in the life of the church because the faithful becomes the unfortunate casualty.
I don’t want to see people become unchurched and alienated due to elitism in the Church. As you can see in many established dioceses in many parts of the world, to get ordained to the Holy Order of Priesthood is becoming a member to an elite group of people. The Rite of Ordination that calls priests to be Christ-like servants is simply a lip service because a parish community is already established, and they don’t do the usual missionary efforts to build a community. It’s the easiest human way to get spoiled. In fact, many priests have already designed a path for their next parish assignment after ordination. While there’s nothing wrong to dream something big in ministry, but the fact is that the routes to pursuing prominence is effortless and there’s nothing like a work of a Christ-like servant as one of the requirements.
Simply, the debates and conversations on celibacy requirement should not be based on a current model of the priesthood that is characterised with elitism. Instead, they must touch the heart of God’s mercy and the life situation of God’s people. Thus, the two critical questions are:
1. Since God did not prohibit married clergy in the life of the Church, what happens to our growing experience of His mercy and compassion? Should we not become more compassionate and merciful?
2. Since there are vast unserved Catholics and millions who are not served with quality by celibate clergy, how is the Mother Churchgoing to fulfil her Holy Order commitment to be Christ-like servants to all?
With these questions, the fundamental requirement of priesthood should be Christ-like service, not celibacy.Jesus called Simon, Andrew, James, and John because they were willing to give up their boats, nets, father, and livelihood for the sake of the Kingdom.(Mt. 4:18-22)
Why the Roman Missal?
There is a Latin maxim that addresses the centrality of worship in the life, identity and mission of the Church; “Lex Orandi, Lex Credendi”. The phrase in Latin literally means the law of prayer (“the way we worship”), and the law of belief (“what we believe”). It is sometimes written as, “lex orandi, lex credendi, lex vivendi”, further deepening the implications of this truth – how we worship reflects what we believe and determines how we will live. The law of prayer or worship is the law of life. Or, even more popularly rendered, as we worship, so will we live…and as we worship, so will we become!
The Church has long understood that part of her role as mother and teacher is to watch over worship, for the sake of the faithful and in obedience to the God whom she serves. How we worship not only reveals and guards what we believe but guides us in how we live our Christian faith and fulfil our Christian mission in the world.
Worship is not an “add on” for an Orthodox Catholic Christian. It is the foundation of Catholic identity; expressing our highest purpose. Worship reveals what we truly believe and how we view ourselves in relationship to God, one another and the world into which we are sent to carry forward the redemptive mission of Jesus Christ. How the Church worships is a prophetic witness to the truth of what it professes. Good worship becomes a dynamic means of drawing the entire human community into the fullness of life in Jesus Christ. It attracts – through beauty to Beauty. Worship informs and transforms both the person and the faith community which participates in it. There is reciprocity between worship and life.
To express our adherence and praxis to the Catholic Faith received by us from the Apostles, this Parish Mission offers the holy sacrifice of the Mass in the Traditional Latin Rite and according to the Rite of St Pius V sometimes called the “Tridentine”, “Gregorian” or “Extraordinary Form”. Other services are sometimes conducted in Sacral English (traditional language) for pastoral necessity. However, Mass booklets in English/Latin are available and many of our parishioners comment how easy it is to become accustomed to the Latin responses… both young and old!
PRESERVATION of the ancient Latin rite of Mass in the form in which it has been celebrated for centuries throughout the world.
RESPECT for the Church’s sacred traditions as a vital link with the traditional Faith regarding the nature of the Mass, and as a secure anchor and guarantee that we do not drift away from that Faith.
NO COMPROMISE with the spirit of the world or adaptation of the Mass to the lifestyle of our desacralised age.
RESTORATION of a sacred atmosphere where God comes first and in which we give Him the worship that is due to Him.
APPRECIATION of the Church’s treasury of sacred music especially Gregorian Chant and Sacred Polyphony.
The Gregorian Rite is the traditional rite of the “Latin Church” or “Church of the West” and was the form of Mass used in Rome. At one time there were many other rites, similar in essential form and content with the Gregorian Rite but with cultural or regional variances such as the “Ambrosian Rite” used in the Diocese of Milan and the “Sarum Use” in the (medieval) Diocese of Salisbury. Similarly in the Eastern/Oriental Orthodox Churches, this rite of Mass is recognised as the Gregorian Rite in parity with their own historical liturgies such as the Byzantine Rite and the Constantinopolitan Rite.
One of the myths presently circulating about the Rite of St. Gregory the Great is that it is “Tridentine”—i.e., it is no older than the Council of Trent [1545-1563]. This criticism is made by those who know nothing about either this Rite or the Council of Trent or the Missal of Pius V . In fact, all that was done at Trent, liturgically speaking, was to standardize the worship of the West. This was done principally in two ways:
First, the Council (together with Pope Pius V) suppressed all Western Rites that did not have a continuous history of at least two hundred years. This effectively eliminated all but the Ambrosian Rite of Milan, the Mozarabic Rite of Toledo, Spain, and the Gregorian Rite of the City of Rome itself, sometimes therefore called the Roman Rite. [* Simple variations within the Roman Rite, such as existed among the Benedictines, Dominicans, etc., were permitted to remain, but have lapsed since the liturgical reforms of the 1960s.] In the 16th century the Gregorian or Roman Rite already had a continuous documented history of more than 1000 years. It therefore became the standard Rite of most of post-Schism Western Christendom. Session XXII [17 Sept. 1562] of the Council issued a series of definitions on the sacrificial doctrine of the Mass, but no change in the actual text of the Rite.
Secondly, the Council of Trent standardised the rubrics of the Gregorian Rite. This meant that when and how the celebrant and other ministers bowed, genuflected, turned to the faithful, etc., was no longer left to the whim or personal style of the individual clergyman. For the sake of propriety, detailed instructions about how to actually celebrate the liturgy were drawn up and imposed upon the whole of the Western Church. Most of these rubrics were not new inventions, however. They were mostly adopted from the customary rubrics of the cathedrals and parish churches of the City of Rome and its surrounding countryside towns and villages. This was logical because Rome was the de jure center of Western Christendom. Thus, by the 16th century even the rubrics already had a long and venerable history and were hardly an innovation of the Counter Reformation.
In the words of Fortescue:
“Essentially the Missal of St. Pius V is the Gregorian Sacramentary; that again is formed from the Gelasian book which depends on the Leonine collection. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis and allusions to it in the fourth century. So our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all. It is still redolent of that liturgy, of the days when Caesar ruled the world and thought he could stamp out the Faith of Christ, when our fathers met together before dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as to a God. The final result of our enquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of later changes, there is not in Christendom another rite so venerable as ours.” The Mass: A Study of the Roman Liturgy (London, 1917). p. 213.
The point is: the Rite of St. Gregory was not “created” by the Council of Trent. Furthermore, as used in Orthodox Christianity today, this Rite with the exception of new Propers introduced to commemorate various saints of the post-schism calendar, the Rite remains essentially identical to that which was already ancient by the time of Trent.
History of the Roman Missal
The development of the Roman missal was spread over several centuries. Even if the essential elements, required for the accomplishment of the holy sacrifice of the Mass have always been present, they have been progressively enshrined in rites which make it possible to understand them and to grasp their deep meaning.The First Three Centuries
The texts of the New Testament recount the institution of the Holy Eucharist on the evening of Holy Thursday. It is the paschal meal, the new Passover, which establishes the new covenant in the precious Blood of Christ. The day chosen to renew it is Sunday, the day of the Resurrection. The Didache, from the end of the first century, speaks of the “Lord’s Sunday,” and St. Justin attests to it in the second century.
The evangelical texts also mention the “breaking of bread” which translates an essential element of this new worship, the fulfilment of the Lord’s command: “Do this in memory of me.” The Book of the Acts of the Apostles shows this ceremony being performed in private homes: “on the first day of the week, when we were assembled to break bread” (Acts 20:7).
The first buildings reserved for worship appeared fairly quickly, as early as the second century. The oldest church was found at Doura-Europos on the Euphrates; it is dated at about 232. In Rome, we have to wait until the beginning of the third century to find documentary traces of Christian religious buildings. But apart from the First Apology by St. Justin Martyr (died 165), this period provides no details on the unfolding of Christian worship or the prayers employed. Here is a well-known passage of the holy apologist:
“And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the congregation assents, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons.”
Fourth to Sixth Centuries
The fourth century sees the end of persecution. Now authorised, Christianity can finally deploy its public worship in buildings that are reserved for it: these are the first basilicas. We have quite a few documents from this period on the Eucharistic celebration. According to this literature, it appears that the oldest and only anaphor used in Rome was the Roman canon. So, from that time there was unity in the Roman Eucharistic liturgy.
The mass began with a preparation for sacrifice with readings, psalms, singing of hymns, and a homily at which the catechumens were present. It was followed by the celebration reserved for the faithful with the Offertory, the singing of the Sanctus, the canon, the fraction, and communion. The Introït was added in the 6th century. The Kyrie eleison was borrowed from the Greek liturgy as early as the fourth century. At the same time, the Gloria went from the Divine Office—the recitation of the Psalms—to the Mass. From the sixth century on, it is attested that in Rome there were only two readings: the epistle and the gospel.
The preface before the canon is very old, prior to the fourth century; it is followed by the Sanctus. The ceremony of the fracture of the host took place at the end of the canon, during the singing of the Agnus Dei. The Pater which followed it was put in by St. Gregory the Great as the conclusion of the canon, according to Greek custom. The Libera nos after the Pater is known from all the liturgies. The kiss of peace followed the fracture. Communion was made with consecrated bread and chalice, without being sure of the exact mode employed. After the blessing the deacon sang the Ite missa est to dismiss the faithful.
From the Sixth to the Eleventh Century
From St. Gregory the Great, pope from 590 to 604, to St. Gregory VII (1073-1085), an evolution occurred which consisted essentially in the introduction of elements borrowed from the Frankish liturgy. Gaul had received the faith of Rome as well as its liturgy. But a certain degree of Frankification of the Roman liturgy led to the adoption by the Roman missal of particular traditions proper to the Frankish domain.
Charlemagne and his scholars were largely responsible for this hybridization. While they imposed the Roman usages in the Frankish kingdom, the local contributions were numerous. At that time, Gregorian chant flourished.
The Gregorian reform undertaken by St. Leo IX (1002-1054) and completed by Urban II (1088-1099), under the influence of popes of Germanic origin, introduced the Roman-Frankish books to Rome itself, while adding Roman elements. The centralization that resulted from the Gregorian reform definitely consolidated the Roman liturgy thus enriched.
The liturgical books of the 13th century, ancestors of the Tridentine books, are derived from this double movement of hybridization: the introduction of Frankish elements in the Roman Carolingian period, and the addition of Roman elements in the Romano-Frank, during the Gregorian reform.
What emerges from the examination of the available liturgical manuscripts is the great general resemblance of these rites to the Tridentine Rite. There are however many secondary rites, which vary according to the place. But there is always a regular concern for liturgical unity. It results from the duty to look after orthodoxy, but also from the desire to avoid a proliferation that could quickly turn into anarchy.
(Source : C. Barthe – FSSPX.Actualités – 30/11/2019)
Cave Church of St Peter at Antioch
Antioch on the Orontes, also called Syrian Antioch, was situated on the eastern side of the Orontes River, in the far southeastern corner of Asia Minor. Three hundred miles (480 km) north of Jerusalem, the Seleucids urged Jews to move to Antioch, their western capital, and granted them full rights as citizens upon doing so. In 64 B.C. Pompey made the city capital over the Roman province of Syria. By 165 A.D., it was third largest city of the empire.
This cave is widely believed to have been dug by the Apostle Peter himself “Simon Peter (Greek: Πέτρος, Pétros, “stone, rock”; c. 1 BC – AD 67), sometimes called Simon Cephas (Greek: Σιμων Κηφᾶς, Symōn Kēphas; Aramaic: Šimʕōn Kêfâ; Syriac: ܫܡܥܘܢ ܟܐܦܐ, Sëmʕān Kêfâ) after his name in Hellenized Aramaic, was a leader of the early Christian New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. Peter was the son of John or of Jonah, and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. Simon Peter is venerated in multiple churches and regarded as the first Pope.
As a place for the early Christian community of Antioch to meet, this cave was used for secret meetings of Antiochene Christians avoiding persecution, It was also the place where they were first called “Christians.” Whether or not this is so, St. Peter (and St. Paul) did preach in Antioch around 50 AD and a church had been established in Antioch by as early as 40 AD.
Antioch became a major centre for planning and organising the apostles’ missionary efforts, and it was the base for Paul’s earliest missionary journeys. Famously, it was the inhabitants of Antioch that first called Jesus’ followers “Christians” (Acts 11:26).
The attractive stone façade of the church was built by Crusaders, who identified the grotto during their rule of Antioch from 1098 to 1268. The interior of the grotto church is austere and simple. The only permanent furnishings are a small altar, a single statue, and a stone throne. On the walls are the barely discernible remains of frescoes, and on the floor can be seen some traces of mosaics. In the back of the church is a tunnel that leads into the mountain interior, popularly believed to be a means of escape in times of persecution.
The cave is reached by going up the stone steps, on the right a relief in the mountainside with a veiled person who looks over the city and most probably dates back to the 2nd century BC. The cave is hidden by a forefront and facade, built by the Crusaders. In the cave there is a small altar, part of a mosaic floor and some fresco’s.
Lately  huge parts of the cave collapsed. The possibility of further collapses means a serious danger for the security of visitors, and caused the closure of the cave by the Turkish authorities. Worship services are still held in St. Peter’s Grotto, especially on the Feast Day of St. Peter and St. Paul (June 29) and on Christmas.
Old Roman Culture
A new regular feature of The Old Roman will be a weekly look at the cultural heritage of Western Christendom. The destructive influence of ultramontanism ie Roman centralisation, has meant the loss in knowledge as well as experience of a host of cultural aspects to the faith that has allowed the terrible deprivation of the contemporary generation from their Catholic cultural heritage. One of the endeavours of Old Romanism must be to perpetuate the traditional customs and practices, with appropriate catechesis, to enable future generations of Orthodox Catholics to know the whole of Tradition!
Of your charity…
For health & well-being…
Christopher, Lyn B, Simon G, Dagmar B, Karen, Debbie G, Fr Graham F, Fr Stephen D, Heather & Susanna L-D, Finley G, Diane C, Pat, Paul, +Rommel B, Penny E, Colin R, John, Ronald, Fr Gerard H, Lilian & family, Ruth L, David G, David P, Patrick H, Debbie G, Karen K, Fr Graham F, S&A, Dave G, +Charles of Wisconsin, +Tissier, Fr Terrence M, +Guo Xijin, +John P, Karl R-W, Fr Antonio Benedetto OSB, Fr Kristopher M & family, Mark Coggan, Ounissa, Ronald Buczek, Rik C, Adrian & Joan Kelly, Juanita Alaniz & family, Shirley V,
For those vocationally discerning…
James, Breandán, Manuel, Vincent, Darren, Akos, Roger, James, Adrian, Carlos, Thomas, Yordanis, Nicholas, Tyler, Micha, Michael,
For the recently departed…
Lauretta (21.01.19), Clive Reed (23.01.19), Fr John Wright (24.01.19), Shelley Luben (11.12.18), Mick Howells (13.12.18), Daniel Callaghan (13.02.19), Alfie (Hub guest), Père Pierre Fournier (08.02.19), Jill Lewis (24.02.19), Cynthia Sharpe Conger (28.02.19), Richard (Ricky) Belmonte, Fr Leo Cameron OSA (29.03.19), Fr John Corbett (30.03.19), Deacon Richard Mulholland (Easter Day), Peter, Bernard Brown (27.06.19), Peter Ellis (01.08.19), Petronila Antonio (10.09.19), Fr Mark Spring (13.09.19), Jean Marchant (15.09.19), Mary Kelly (15.10.19), John Pender (23.10.19), David Cole, Pauline White, Fr Graham Francis
For those who mourn…
Barbara R & family, Brenda W & family, Joseph S, Catherine L & family, Rev George C & family, Jean C, Margaret & Bonita C, Debbie M & family, Phil E & Family, Adrian Kelly & family, Fr Nicholas Pnematicatos & family, Fr Andrew White & family, Richard Cole & family, the Francis Family
To accompany your worship why not invest in a St Andrew’s Daily Missal that contains ALL the Propers for ALL the Masses offered throughout the year?
The St Andrew’s Daily Missal also contains historical commentary and footnotes on the Feast days, devotions, prayers of preparation for before and after Mass as well as the Ordinary of the Mass and Propers for Vespers for Sundays and major Feast days throughout the year in Latin and in English. It also contains forms for Morning and Evening Prayer, Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and Compline. It really is a treasury of devotion!
To order directly from the publishers, visit here $68 = £52.50 approx
Mass Centre Directory
If you would like your mission’s Mass times and other activities included here just submit details via email.
PHILIPPINES, Bacoor Parish of Jesus the Divine Mercy, Copper St. Platinum Ville, San Nicolas III, Bacoor, Province of Cavite
|1000||Mass & Children’s Catechesis|
|1st Wed’s||1800||Mass & O.L. of Perpetual Succour Devotions|
|1st Frids’||1800||Mass & Sacred Heart Devotions|
PHILIPPINES, Lagunas Parish of San Isidro Labrador, Dita, Sta. Rosa
|1st Wed’s||1800||Mass & O.L. Perpetual Succour Devotions|
|1st Fri’s||1800||Mass & Sacred Heart Devotions|
UK, Brighton The Brighton Oratory of SS Cuthman & Wilfrid, 1-6 Park Crescent Terrace, Brighton BN2 3HD Telephone +44 7423 074517
|Sundays||0830||Mass & homily|
|& Daily||1000||Breaking fast|
|Wed’s||1730||Holy Hour & Benediction|
|Sat’s||0830||Mass & homily|
UK, Bristol The Little Oratory of Our Lady of Walsingham with Saint Francis, 11 The Primroses, Hartcliffe, Bristol, BS13 0BG
|Sundays||1030||Sermon & Holy Communion|
USA, Chicago IL Parish Mission of St Anne, Church of the Atonement, 5749 North Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, IL 60660 Telephone: (773) 817 – 5818
|Sundays||1800||Mass & homily (2nd of the month)|
|Wed’s||1930||Catechism & Reception Class|
USA, Chicago IL Missionary Franciscans of Christ the King, The Friary
USA, Glendale AZ St. Joseph’s Glendale AZ. Contact address: 7800 N 55th Ave Unit 102162 Glendale AZ 85301 Telephone +1 310 995 3126